A number of ciphers were in use in the Middle Ages, including the Alphabetum Kaldeorum.

The Wikipedia page on the subject is [1].


  • The Astronomicum page on medieval cryptography is here [2].
  • The Ciphers of the Monks: A Forgotten Number-notation of the Middle Ages, David A. King Franz Steiner Verlag, 2001
  • The Times Higher Education review is here [3]

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