The Theban alphabet is a writing system with unknown origins which first came into publication in the 16th century.
It was first published in Johannes Trithemius' Polygraphia (1518), in which it was attributed to Honorius of Thebes "as Pietro de Abano testifies in his greater fourth book". However, it is not known to be extant in any of the known writings attributed to d'Abano (1250-1316). Trithemius' student Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535) included it in his de Occulta Philosophia (Book III, chap. 29, 1531). It is also not known to be found in any manuscripts of the writings of Honorius of Thebes (i.e. Liber Iuratus Honorii, or The Sworn Book of Honorius), with the exception of the composite manuscript found in London, British Library Manuscript Sloane 3853, which however openly identifies Agrippa as its source.
It is also known as the Honorian Alphabet or the Runes of Honorius after the legendary magus (Theban is not, however, a runic alphabet), or the Witches' Alphabet due to its use in modern Wicca and other forms of witchcraft as one of many substitution ciphers to hide magical writings such as the contents of a Book of Shadows from prying eyes. The Theban alphabet bears little resemblance to other alphabets, and has not been found in any previous publications prior to that of Trithemius.
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