The VIC cipher was a pencil and paper cipher used by the Soviet spy Reino Häyhänen, codenamed "VICTOR" (Wikipedia page ).
If the cipher were to be given a modern technical name, it would be known as a "straddling bipartite monoalphabetic substitution superenciphered by modified double transposition." However, by general classification it is part of the Nihilist family of ciphers.
The VIC cipher can be regarded as the evolutionary pinnacle of the Nihilist cipher family.
More information on the Wikipedia page